James E. Carter (D)
After an initial stage, in which the Carter administration quietly tried to preserve some of the measures adopted by his predecessor and to open a space for dialogue on areas separate from the blockade, in general during this government, all the components of the economic warfare against Cuba were maintained.
The Carter administration’s weakness to really generate a policy of its own and one structured for Cuba, made this moment of alleged loosening of its policy toward the Island vanish.
In the final months of the Carter administration, huge efforts were made in order to promote by all means, Cuba’s international disrepute.
06.01.77-21.03.77 The Cuban Assets Control Regulations of the Treasury Department were amended, thus authorizing people traveling to Cuba to pay their plane ticket and expenses during their stay in Cuba, and to buy $100 worth of Cuban merchandise which may be brought into the United States by authorized travelers arriving from Cuba. Media officers or professional researchers are allowed to import publications and other informational materials related to their work without limits in terms of value. Companies –owned by Americans or controlled by them abroad- were allowed to pay or reimburse the expenses including trips made by local employees to Cuba.
Provisions regarding specific licenses to conduct trade with Cuba by foreign subsidiaries of U.S. firms were amended. Such amendment established that the prohibition includes the assistance by a United States home office, or any of its officials or employees, both in the negotiation and in the execution of a transaction subject to a license request. Such assistance or participation is the basis for the denial of a request or the repeal of a license. The subsidiary shall be generally independent from the home office in the conduct of the transactions subject to license. For the purposes of the amendment, a subsidiary is not independent if there is a substantial number of officials or directors of the foreign subsidiary who are also officials or directors of a legal person within the United States. (42 FP 472; Sec. 515.559; January 7, 1977; 42 FR 16621; Sec. 515.546; 515.559; 515.561; March 29, 1977).
12.05.77 The Regulations for the Cuban Assets Control of the Treasury Department were reviewed resulting in the issuance of a general license to allow other people such as travel agencies to assist U.S. travellers in their arrangements for their travels to Cuba; to allow to charter planes and vessels to travel to Cuba; and facilitate the use of travellers cheques and credit cards with regard to their trip to Cuba. The amendment allowed arranging a group of charter tours to Cuba. The regular commercial service of national and foreign passengers between the United States and Cuba was not authorized. (Federal Register, Vol 42, No. 96, (Sec. 515.560), May 18, 1977).
10.06.77. The National Security Council decided to interrupt the black list of ships, which was announced in the Federal Register by a note from the Maritime Administration.
03.11.77 The Cuban Assets Control Regulations of the Treasury Department were amended allowing foreign companies- owned or controlled by Americans- to refuel Cuban vessels, and refuel Cuban aircraft. (42 FR 58518; Sec. 515.562; November 1, 1977).
22.12.77 The Cuban Assets Control Regulations of the Treasury Department were amended, allowing people in the United States to send up to U.S. $500.00 quarterly to close relatives in Cuba, and to send additional remittances of U.S.$500.00 one time, for the purposes of allowing families to emigrate from Cuba. Remittances from blocked accounts are not allowed. (43 FR 1336; No. 5, (Sec. 515.563), January 9, 1978).
28.12.77. Section 101 of Public Law 95-223 (91 Stat. 1625) repealed the President’s authority to use powers granted by the Trading with the Enemy Act in times of declared national emergency. This law was used as an additional authority for Regulations for Cuban Imports and afterwards for Cuban Assets Control Regulations.
The existing actions taken under the repealed authority should have ended on September 14, 1978, unless they were extended annually by the President in the national interest of the United States. The President has used the extension of the authority with regard to several actions, including the Cuban Assets Control Regulations.
26.04.78 The Cuban Assets Control Regulations of the Treasury Department were amended allowing certain transactions related to travels of Cuban nationals with U.S. visa to the United States, within such country and from its territory. Likewise, U.S. people such as travel agents or exhibit or shows sponsors were allowed to participate or cooperate in transactions conducted by such Cuban nationals, on their behalf, related to this authorized travel.
The declaration of licenses policy announced the denial of licenses for payments to Cubans for TV royalties, appearances fees, patent rights, or to pay pre-performances in Cuba by Cubans who would go to the United States for public performances. Likewise, payments to people in Cuba for these purposes regarding performances or exhibits of Americans in Cuba would not be allowed. However, specific licenses to authorize news organizations for payments in Cuba to cover events, unlike payments for performances, patent rights, etc, will be issued. It was made clear that such amendments do not authorize transfer of property to Cuba or debits to frozen accounts. Mention of the authority clause of 1977 relative to fuel supply was reviewed. (43 FR 19852; Sec. 515.562; 515.564-565; May 9, 1978).
26.10.78 The Cuban Assets Control Regulations of the Treasury Department were reviewed and Section 515.563 was amended to authorize quarterly remittances of up to U.S. $500.00 for Cuban nationals living in third countries from funds not coming from blocked accounts for purposes of assisting families. The list of countries included in the term “authorized commercial territory” was updated. Issuance of specific licenses to authorize visitors of Cuban origin to conduct certain transactions related to exhibits or public shows in the United States was foreseen. (43 FR 51762; 51763; Sec. 515.322; 515.563; November 7, 1978).
01.11.78 The Cuban Assets Control Regulations of the Treasury Department were amended, and established that people holding certain types of Cuban blocked properties are required to have such property in a national bank in an account subject to the payment of interest. Such amendment demanded that such person would draft a one-time report on such assets, but the report form was never printed or the information requirement was never implemented. (Federal Register, (Sec. 515.205 and 515.611), November 14, 1978).
02.03.79 The Cuban Assets Control Regulations of the Treasury Department were amended imposing the requirement of payment of interests on owners of certain types of Cuban blocked properties and the issuance of specific licenses to authorize transfers of abandoned properties pursuant to U.S. laws. (44 FR 11770; 11771; Sec. 515.205; 515.554; March 2, 1979).
29.09.79 Section 6 (a) of the Export Administration Act of 1979 (50 USC App. 2405 (a) established a mandatory deadline for controls on exports, maintained for foreign policy reasons such as the blockade against Cuba, unless such controls be extended by the President annually, subject to specific statutory criteria and to the consultation and report to the Congress. The extension of the authority was transferred to the Secretary of Commerce who has used it annually to extend the controls. (Foreign Policy Report to the Congress, January 21, 1985, January 20, 1986, by the Secretary of Commerce, January 17, 1986)
24.08.80 The Cuban Assets Control Regulations of the Treasury Department were amended, authorizing transactions related to satellite communications between the United States and Cuba for broadcasting news, also including the issuance of specific licenses following the case-by-case analysis for transactions related to other communication activities such as telephone and telegraph services between the United States and Cuba. (45 FR 58843; Sec 515.542; September 5, 1980).
13.11.80 The Office for Foreign Assets Control of the Treasury Department announced that it had reasons to believe that the materials and items with nickel content manufactured by Cresout-Loire -French steel-producing firm- could be made or derived wholly or partly from Cuban origin nickel. The note indicated that the materials and items produced or supplied by the French firm could be held by Customs until they were released from Customs, or other provision were authorized by the Office for Foreign Assets Control. (Note of the Treasury Department, November 13, 1980).